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Τετάρτη, 30 Απριλίου 2014

Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca

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Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca
Laguna Seca
LagunaSecaLogo.jpg

Laguna Seca.svg
LocationMonterey County, near Monterey,California, USA
Time zoneUTC-8 (UTC-7 DST)
OwnerMonterey County Parks Department
OperatorSports Car Racing Association of the Monterey Peninsula
Opened1957
Construction cost$1.5 million USD
Major eventsUnited States motorcycle Grand Prix
CART
American Le Mans Series
Monterey Historic Automobile Races
SurfacePaved
Length2.238 mi (3.602 km)
Turns11
Lap record1'05.786 (Marc GenéScuderia FerrariFerrari F2003-GA, 2012,Formula 1)
Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca (previously known as Laguna Seca Raceway) is a paved road racing track in central Californiaused for both auto racing and motorcycle racing, originally constructed in 1957 near both Salinas and MontereyCaliforniaUSA.
The current racetrack is 2.238 miles (3.602 km) in length with a 180 feet (55 m) elevation change.[1][2] It has eleven turns, including the famous "Corkscrew" at Turns 8 and 8A. A variety of racing, exhibition and entertainment events are held at the raceway, ranging from superkarts to sports car racing to music festivals.
The name Laguna Seca is Spanish for "dry lake" - the area where the track now lies was originally a lake, and the course was built around the dry lake bed. After the course was reconfigured, two artificial ponds were added.

History[edit]

Laguna Seca Raceway from between Turns 1 and 2
Mario Andretti at Laguna Seca, 1991
The earliest development of the local area occurred in 1867 with the founding of the nearby Laguna Seca Ranch, which has operated continuously for 140 years with grazingand equestrian uses.[3]
The track was built in 1957 at a cost of $1.5 million raised from local businesses and individuals on part of the US Army's Fort Ord (a maneuver area and field artillery target range) after the nearby Pebble Beach Road Races were abandoned for being too dangerous. In 1974, the property was deeded over to the Monterey County Parks Department and continues to be part of the park system to this day.
The first race, held on November 9, 1957, was won by Pete Lovely driving a Ferrari. In the intervening years, the track has hosted USRRC, Can-AmTrans-AmFormula 5000IMSA GTChamp CarAmerican Le Mans SeriesGrand AmericanMonterey Historic Automobile RacesSpeed World Challenge, AMA (American Motorcyclist Association), WSBK Superbike World Championship and MotoGP motorcycle races (but 125 and 250 are not admitted).
The day-to-day operations of the track, along with the management and promotion of major racing events, are handled by the Sports Car Racing Association of the Monterey Peninsula (SCRAMP), a non-profit organization. With oversight by a board of local residents, SCRAMP operates with a professional staff on-site with the goal of generating income through the operations of the racetrack which is then redistributed to local charities.
The track itself has undergone significant changes over the past two decades to meet evolving safety homologation requirements of the Fédération Internationale de Motocyclisme(FIM), Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and other sanctioning bodies. Changes include the addition of the entire infield area in 1988 (present day turns 3, 4, and 5, eliminating the straight that started at present day turn 2 and ended at present day turn 5) extending the track from its original 1.9-mile (3.1 km) length to meet the minimum-track-length criteria of the FIM for MotoGP events, plus the more recent relocation of pedestrian bridges and embankments, and the expansion of gravel pits outside turns 1, 2, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10 for additional runoff. The original media center was demolished in 2006 to make way for additional run-off room in Turn 1. Also in 2006, the 'hump' at the top of the Rahal Straight was flattened to accommodate the MotoGP riders, though some claim that this increases the wind effects that can perturb a race motorcycle. Remnants of the old configuration can still be seen from the parking lot between turns two and five. They are found underneath a road leading to the parking area for entrant trailers and RVs.
The "Corkscrew" at Turn 8
A view of the "Corkscrew" from the bottom
The famous Turn 8 and 8A combination, popularly referred to as the Corkscrew, is considered one of the motorsport world's most challenging turns,[citation needed] due to the drop in elevation as well as its blind crest and apex on the uphill approach.[4]
Turn 2, with its difficult and technical double-apex, has been renamed the 'Andretti Hairpin', in honor of former Formula 1 World Champion Mario Andretti, while Turn 9 has been renamed 'Rainey Curve' in honor of 500cc Grand Prix motorcycle racing World Champion Wayne Rainey, a resident of nearby Salinas, California. Also the straight that runs between Turn 6 and Turn 7 has been renamed the 'Rahal Straight' after four-time consecutive Champ Car race winner Bobby Rahal.
Champ Car World Series weekend had been a prominent event from 1983 through 2004 when its spot on the calendar was shifted to the San Jose Grand Prix. Perhaps one of the most famous moments of racing took place at Laguna Seca's Corkscrew when Alex Zanardi passed Bryan Herta on the inside of the Corkscrew on the last lap of the 1996 CART race to take the victory. Uruguayan driver Gonzalo Rodríguez died during the practice session of the 1999 CART race after crashing at the same corner. Because of the incident, runoff was installed at the end of the Rahal Straight. Champ Car announced on September 11, 2007 that they would be returning the Northern California race to Laguna Seca from San Jose over the May 16–18 weekend in 2008.[5] But the subsequent merger of Champ Car and IndyCar resulted in the race being canceled.
The track is also the site of the annual Monterey Historics event sponsored every August by Rolex that sees an extraordinarily eclectic mixture of race cars on the course. Each year features a different marque. Considered one of the two greatest historic racing events (along with the Goodwood Festival in England), attendance often rivals, or surpasses the professional racing events listed above.
There are many permanent dry and hook-up camping facilities located at the raceway, which are available year-round as part of the Laguna Seca Recreation Area, the county park in which the racetrack is set.
The track's primary corporate sponsor is Mazda, who hold some of their own events there and display their products at major racing events. As part of the sponsorship, the track is now officially referred to as Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca.

Racing[edit]

Major events each year include the U.S. Sports Car Invitational featuring the Grand American Rolex Sports Car Series, Monterey Sports Car Championships featuring a six-hour endurance race for the ALMS, Monterey Historics for classic racecars, and the Red Bull U.S. Grand Prix featuring both the MotoGP World Championship and the U.S. AMA Superbike Series. In 2006, the A1 Grand Prix brought international open-wheel racing back to Mazda Raceway Laguna Seca.

Formula One[edit]

In 1989, the year following the last Formula One race in Detroit, choices for a new location for the United States Grand Prix came down to Laguna Seca and Phoenix. The aforementioned 1988 improvements to the track were made in part to lure the F1 race. In the final decision, Laguna Seca was thought to be too remote and too small for an F1 crowd, and so Phoenix was granted the Grand Prix.

Lap records[edit]

On August 20, 2006, Toyota F1 test driver Ricardo Zonta set an unofficial lap record of 1'06.039.[6] The previous record time was 1'07.722, set by Helio Castroneves in a PenskeChamp Car during qualifying for the 2000 CART Honda Grand Prix of Monterey. The unofficial record was re-taken by a Champ Car on March 10, 2007 by Sébastien Bourdais, who lapped in 1'05.880 during Champ Car Spring Training. The unofficial record was again re-taken by a Formula One car on May 19, 2012 by Marc Gené, who lapped in 1'05.786 in a Ferrari F2003-GA during the 2012 Ferrari Racing Days.[7]
Officially, Castroneves is still the recordholder as the times of Zonta, Bourdais and Gené were set during exhibition and testing sessions, and official records can only be set in race conditions (either in practice, qualifying, or during a race).
At the 2008 Monterey Sports Car ChampionshipsDavid Brabham set a pole position time of 1:10.103 in a Le Mans Prototype.[8]
The fastest lap at the 2006 A1GP race was 1:17.951, set by Nicolas Lapierre.
At the 2012 United States motorcycle Grand PrixJorge Lorenzo set a pole time of 1:20.554 on the Yamaha. During the 2001 Superbike World Championship seasonBen Bostrom set a time of 1:25.704 on the Ducati.[9]
Motor Trend uses Laguna Seca as a benchmark in much the same way Car and Driver had used Virginia International Raceway in recent years. The track was the site of their "America's Best Handling Car" and "Best Driver's Car" comparisons. In total, over 30 street legal cars have set laps on the track in the hands of Motor Trend. The 2014 SRT Viper TA is the current leader, with a lap time of 1:33.620.[10]

Other use[edit]

Automotive[edit]

When not being used by the major events the track can be rented. Approximately twice a year the Sports Car Club of America holds regional club races for the San Francisco Region. Various clubs rent the track throughout the year for informal high performance driving schools that allow the public to drive their own cars at speed. The raceway has also played host to prototype testing of the Nissan GT-R in 2007.[11]
The track is featured in video games such as the Gran Turismo series (including the bike version Tourist Trophy), Forza Motorsport, and the MotoGP series. In a bid to compare real life versus video games, Jeremy Clarkson of the British automotive show Top Gear attempted to beat his Gran Turismo time of 1:41.148 in a Honda NSX by racing the real track in the same car in 2005. During the trials, Clarkson determined that the game omitted a few details of the track, and the game's physics allowed him to brake later when coming into turns than he could in real life. As a consequence, reality prevailed and he managed a best time of only 1:57 on the real course.[12] However, both he and the track instructor agreed that it is possible to complete the course in 1:41 in a Honda NSX if the driver were sufficiently experienced, talented, and most importantly fearless.
Laguna Seca is home to a branch of the Skip Barber Racing School, which conducts race and street driver training in the paddock area and on the circuit itself on a year-round basis.[13]

Other non-automotive events[edit]

Laguna Seca and the part of the old Fort Ord that is now Bureau of Land Management land annually host the Sea Otter Classic "Celebration of Cycling". As the first major event of the year – typically held in April – it kicks off both the road bike and mountain bike seasons.
Several times each year, bicycles are permitted on the track for 2 hours. The admission fee is $10 per bicycle rider.
On September 17, 1987, Pope John Paul II celebrated mass at Laguna Seca Raceway, where 72,000 people had gathered to see him.[14]
Laguna Seca has proven popular in computer games in simulations, with over twenty popular packages containing interpretations at the venue.[citation needed]
Laguna Seca was featured in the movie The Love Bug, where Herbie competes in a fictional Monterey Grand Prix, as well as the qualifying sequences in the sequel film Herbie Goes to Monte Carlo.[citation needed]
On June 24, 2011, John Mueller of Muellerized Suspension Systems married Sheila Stone on the top of the corkscrew at Laguna Seca. This is the location where the ashes of Lee Mueller (4 time SCCA National Champion, IMSA GTU Champion, 3 time winner of the 24 hours of Daytona, and 12 hours of Sebring winner), John Mueller's father, were spread.[15]

Races[edit]

Major events[edit]

Other events[edit]

A1 Grand Prix[edit]

SeasonSprint Race WinnerFeature Race Winner
2005–2006Mexico Salvador DuránMexico Salvador Durán

MotoGP[edit]

YearRaces WinnersTeamBike
2005United States Nicky HaydenRepsol HondaRC 211V
2006United States Nicky HaydenRepsol HondaRC 211V
2007Australia Casey StonerDucati MarlboroDesmosedici GP7
2008Italy Valentino RossiFiat YamahaYZR-M1
2009Spain Dani PedrosaRepsol HondaRC 212V
2010Spain Jorge LorenzoFiat YamahaYZR-M1
2011Australia Casey StonerRepsol HondaRC 212V
2012Australia Casey StonerRepsol HondaRC 213V
2013Spain Marc MarquezRepsol HondaRC 213V

Superbike World Championship[edit]

YearRaces WinnersTeamBike
1995Australia Anthony Gobert
Australia Troy Corser
Muzzy Kawasaki
Promotor Ducati Corse
Kawasaki ZX-7R
Ducati 916
1996United States John Kocinski
Australia Anthony Gobert
Ducati Corse
Muzzy Kawasaki
Ducati 916
Kawasaki ZX-7R
1997United States John Kocinski
United States John Kocinski
Castrol Honda-HRC
Castrol Honda-HRC
Honda RC45
Honda RC45
1998Australia Troy Corser
Japan Noriyuki Haga
Ducati Corse
Yamaha World Superbike Team
Ducati 916
Yamaha YZF750
1999Australia Anthony Gobert
United States Ben Bostrom
Vance & Hines Ducati
Vance & Hines Ducati
Ducati 996
Ducati 996
2000Japan Noriyuki Haga
Australia Troy Corser
Yamaha World Superbike Team
Aprilia
Yamaha YZF-R7
Aprilia RSV1000
2001United States Ben Bostrom
United States Ben Bostrom
L&M Ducati
L&M Ducati
Ducati 996
Ducati 996
2002Australia Troy Bayliss
United States Colin Edwards
Infostrada Ducati Corse
Castrol Honda-HRC
Ducati 998
Honda RC51
2003Italy Pierfrancesco Chili
Spain Rubén Xaus
PSG-1 Ducati
FILA Ducati Corse
Ducati 998
Ducati 998
2004Australia Chris Vermeulen
Australia Chris Vermeulen
ten Kate Honda
ten Kate Honda
Honda CBR1000RR
Honda CBR1000RR
2005 - 2012, Event not held at Laguna Seca
2013United Kingdom Tom Sykes
Republic of Ireland Eugene Laverty
Kawasaki Racing Team
Aprilia Racing Team
Kawasaki ZX-10R
Aprilia RSV4

AMA Grand National Roadrace[edit]

SeasonWinnerTeam/EntrantBike
1972United States Calvin Rayborn IIHarley-Davidson Motor CoHarley-Davidson
1973United States Gary NixonErv Kanemoto/KawasakiKawasaki Heavy Industries
1974United States Kenny RobertsYamaha Factory TeamYamaha
1975United States Kenny RobertsYamaha Factory TeamYamaha
1976United States Steve BakerYamaha Factory TeamYamaha

AMA Superbike[edit]

SeasonWinnerTeam/EntrantBike
1976United Kingdom Reg PridmoreButler & Smith BMWBMW
1977United States Steve McLaughlinYoshimuraSuzuki
1978United States Wes CooleyYoshimuraSuzuki
1979United States Freddie SpencerKawasaki FactoryKawasaki
1980United States Freddie SpencerAmerican HondaHonda
1981United States Eddie LawsonTeam MuzzyKawasaki
1982United States Eddie LawsonTeam MuzzyKawasaki
1983United States Wayne RaineyTeam MuzzyKawasaki
1984United States Fred MerkelAmerican HondaHonda
1985United States John AshmeadAshmead / Gary MeadleyHonda
1986United States Wayne RaineyAmerican HondaHonda
1987United States Bubba ShobertAmerican HondaHonda
1988United States Bubba ShobertShobert/HondaHonda
1989–1991: No race
1992United States Doug PolenFast by FerracciDucati
1993United States Doug PolenFast by FerracciDucati
1994Canada Pascal PicotteFast by FerracciDucati
1995United States Freddie SpencerFast by FerracciDucati
1996United States Doug ChandlerTeam MuzzyKawasaki
1997United States Doug ChandlerTeam MuzzyKawasaki
1998Canada Miguel DuhamelErion RacingHonda
1999Australia Anthony GobertVance & HinesDucati
2000United States Nicky HaydenAmerican HondaHonda
2001United States Eric BostromKawasaki FactoryKawasaki
2002United States Eric BostromKawasaki FactoryKawasaki
2003Australia Mat MladinYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2004United States Ben BostromParts Unlimited American HondaHonda
2005United States Eric BostromParts Unlimited MotoAustinDucati
2006United States Ben SpiesYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2007
July
United States Ben SpiesYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2007
Sept
United States Ben SpiesYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2008
July
Australia Mat MladinYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2008
Sept
Australia Mat MladinYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2009United States Aaron YatesMichael Jordan MotorsportsSuzuki
2010United States Ben BostromPat Clark MotorsportsYamaha
2011United States Tommy HaydenYoshimura RacingSuzuki
2012United States Josh HayesGraves MotorsportsYamaha
2013
July
United States Josh HayesGraves MotorsportsYamaha
2013
Sept
United States Josh HayesGraves MotorsportsYamaha

Rolex Sports Car Series[edit]

SeasonWinning DriversCarTeamEvent NameDuration
2005Mexico Luis Díaz / United States Scott PruettRiley Mk XI-LexusChip Ganassi Racing with Felix SabatesRoad & Track 250250 miles
2006Italy Max Angelelli / Denmark Jan Magnussen / South Africa Wayne TaylorRiley Mk XI-PontiacSunTrust RacingU.S. Sportscar Invitational
2007United States Patrick Long / Germany Jörg BergmeisterCrawford DP03-PorscheAlex Job RacingU.S. Sportscar Invitational2:30
2008United Kingdom Ryan Dalziel / United States Henri ZogaibRiley Mk XI-BMWSAMAX MotorsportRumBum.com 250250 miles
2009United States Jon Fogarty / United States Alex GurneyRiley Mk XI-PontiacGAINSCO/Bob Stallings RacingVerizon Festival of Speed250 miles
2010Event not held
2011United States Jon Fogarty / United States Alex GurneyRiley Mk XI-ChevroletGAINSCO/Bob Stallings RacingContinental Tire Sports Car Festival2:45
2012United Kingdom Richard Westbrook / Spain Antonio GarciaCoyote-PorscheSpirit of Daytona RacingContinental Tire Sports Car Festival2:45
2013Italy Max Angelelli / United States Jordan TaylorDallara-CorvetteWayne Taylor RacingContinental Tire Sports Car Festival2:45

Trans-Am[edit]

YearClassDriverCar
1969Over 2000cc
Under 2000cc
United States Mark Donohue
United States Peter Gregg
Chevrolet Camaro
Porsche 911
1970Over 2000cc
Under 2000cc
United States Parnelli Jones
United States Lee Midgley
Ford Mustang
Alfa Romeo GTA
1971Event not held
1972Under 2500ccUnited States John MortonDatsun 510
1973–1977Event not held
1978Category I
Category II
United States Bob Tullius
United States Greg Pickett
Jaguar XJS
Chevrolet Corvette
1979Category I
Category II
United States Bob Tullius
United States Peter Gregg
Triumph TR8
Porsche
1980United States Greg PickettChevrolet Corvette
1981United States George FollmerChevrolet Camaro
1982United States Elliott Forbes-RobinsonPontiac Trans Am
1983–1999Event not held
2000Canada Kenny WildenChevrolet Camaro
2001United Kingdom Justin BellChevrolet Corvette
2002–2003Event not held
2004United States Tommy KendallJaguar XKR

References[edit]

Further reading[edit]

"Laguna Seca Raceway: 40 Years Through the Corkscrew: 1957-1997" (David and Mary-Ellen Wright-Rana, 1997) — ISBN 0966024818

External links[edit]